In addition, the binary logistic regression model was also applied to identify the determinants of adaptation to climate change practices of the smallholder farmers. Deressa et al. Though the impacts of climate change varies temporally and spatially, the threat to rain-fed crop production is considered the most prevalent as future impacts are again projected to worsen following change in temperature and precipitation (Dinar et al., 2008; Kurukulasuriya and Mendelsohn, 2008; Deressa et al., 2011). Restoring soils is also critical for addressing Ethiopia's water issues. They are also very grateful for the smallholder farmers of Adama District for their cooperation to participate in the study. A Climate Trend Analysis of Ethiopia. or, by International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT). (2011), “Climate change and variability in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current and future trends and impacts on agriculture and food security”, Environment, Development and Sustainability, Vol. (2013). This gave the assistants the opportunity to help the respondents who cannot read and write. "If a landscape tends to increase runoff, then its ability to store water in soils and vegetation is lower," said Abera. Rural livelihood systems – crop cultivation, pastoralism, and agro-pastoralism – … The analysis was based on the records of observed meteorological data and the future projected from the CMIP5 model under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. In recent years environment has become a key issue in Ethiopia. In this case, the developing countries and the poor are the most vulnerable group. 5G and future 6G terahertz absorbed by water vapour = heating? 1-17. In this case, the smallholder farmers who practiced at least one climate change adaptation strategy in their farming were coded as 0, while those who did not practice any of the strategy were coded as 1 throughout the model. Triangulated with thematic analysis, descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model were used for the analysis. Part B: regional aspects, Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge University Press, Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques, New Age International (p) Limited Publisher, Climate change and variability in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of current and future trends and impacts on agriculture and food security, Environment, Development and Sustainability. Separately, however, these methods did not have much impact, suggesting an integrated land management approach is needed to boost all ecosystem services. This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. (2013) and Tessema et al. The result from binary logistic regression model showed that age and sex of household head, as well as their education, family size, access to agricultural extension services and training on climate change significantly influence the practices of adaptation measures. But despite its big restoration initiatives, Africa's second-most populous country is still insufficiently tracking how projects have helped to recover and boost ecosystem services, a new study shows. Hassan, R. and Nhemachena, C. (2008), “Determinants of African farmers’ strategies for adapting to climate change: multinomial choice analysis”, AfJARE, Vol. This shows that even though there is high variability in the ages of the sampled households, they are generally within the productive age that can fully and efficiently engage in agricultural activities. The data obtained from the participants include growing multiple crops on the same unit of land, conserving soil and water, increasing use of agricultural inputs such as compost and chemical fertilizers, using drought resistant crop varieties, using improved crop varieties and growing early maturing crop varieties. This finding is in line with Asfaw and Admassie (2004), who found out that female headed households are mostly characterized by small income sources and less likely to meet the requirement for physical activities. ADDIS ABABA, 16 November 2015 | Climate change is threatening to exacerbate health problems in Ethiopia, the World Health Organization warns in a new Climate and Health Country Profile 2015, published today. Researchers looked at how specific restoration methods influenced ecosystem services. To identify the determinants of climate change adaptation strategies, binary logistic regression model was applied and its specification was presented in the methodology part. 3, pp. Respondents were asked to indicate their views to find out whether there has been implementation of climate change adaptation activities by smallholder farmers or not. 4, pp. Achieving Clean Energy Access in Sub-Saharan Africa (Paris: OECD/Financing Climate Futures, 2019). (2017) has conducted a study on climate change adaptation issues in Arsi Negelle district – central rift valley region of Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, climate change leads herders to retrain as farmers. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited. “As we’ve continued to pour more and more carbon dioxide into our atmo… To include all important variables in data collection instruments, several research works were also reviewed (Deressa et al., 2011; Tazeze et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2013; Belay et al., 2017). Both close and open-ended questions were prepared to gather data about the adaptation strategies and the determinants of adaptation strategies of climate change from the perspectives of smallholder farmers. The preparation of NAP-ETH has been coordinated by Ethiopia’s Environment, Forest and Climate Change Commission (EFCCC) involving relevant government institutions, subject matter specialists, researchers and academicians. The duration of the stay in study area has significant implications in identifying historical profile of climate change and its adaptation practices. The omnibus test of model coefficients has a χ2 value of 156.549 on 9 degrees of freedom, which is significant at p < 0.001 suggesting that the model has a strong explanatory power. Mannke, F. (2010), Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change in Africa, Germany. To cement the existing research gap, this study, therefore, set out to analyze the major determinants of adaptation strategies to climate change practiced by the smallholder farmers in Adama district. Neither your address nor the recipient's address will be used for any other purpose. Over the last 20 years, runoff at a national level has increased by about 80 mm/year on average, equally influenced by climate change and land transformation, another CIAT-led study found. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. Food Security Context: Complex Patterns of Climate, Climate Change, and Livelihoods. Of the 24 agro-ecological zones with ongoing restoration projects, only 11 have been studied, mostly at plot level, without looking at the benefits for ecosystem services at landscape scale. APO (2004), “National regional state of Oromia Adama project office. Finally, various experts and administrators were consulted to look into the real climate change adaptation strategies. (2008), Climate Change and Agriculture in Africa: Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies, Earthscan, London. The study also aims at examining the ongoing climate change adaptations strategies used by smallholder farmers in the study area. Finally, systematic random sampling technique was used to draw the sample size households from the kebeles. Camino, E.R. Get weekly and/or daily updates delivered to your inbox. Though the economic reform made after the political change in 1991 brought significant improvements in the economy, Ethiopia is still one of the least developed countries (LDCs) in the World. Dinar, A., Hassan, R., Mendelsohn, R. and Benhin, J. Water availability in Ethiopia's southeast has been mainly affected by decreasing rainfall and changing climate, while a mix of higher climate variability, extensive land use and degradation have undermined water resources in its central and western highlands. 251-265. Even if the levels of greenhouse gasses were kept constant at the existing values, the climate change would continue to pose threat in the coming decades due to the inertia of the climate system (Camino, 2010; Oswald and McNeil, 2013) regardless of mitigation measures (Mertz et al., 2009; IPCC, 2013). Questions used in these research works were tested for their validity and reliability. (2020), "Determinants of adaptation strategies to climate change among the smallholder farmers in Adama District, Ethiopia", International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. (2008) argues that accessibility of information about climate change characteristics by farming community can accelerate and diversify the implementation of climate change adaptation strategies. Gebrehiwot, T. and Veen, A. 2 No. This implies that most of the farming communities of the study area rely on their own experiences for the information about climate change issues. Starting with securing food for vulnerable communities in the 1970s, projects went on to rehabilitate natural resources on a large scale in the mid to late 2000s. Monitoring project benefits remains insufficient, the study shows. Bryman, A. (2010). Adama district is bordered in the south by Arsi zone, in the southwest by Koka Reservior, on the west by Lome, on the north by the Afar Region and on the east by Boset district. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial & non-commercial purposes), subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. Furthermore, most of the studies were concentrated in Nile Basin of Ethiopia (Deressa et al., 2011; Di Falco et al., 2009) and the studies did not address explicitly adaptation strategies of smallholder farmers at the farm level as they used regional data. The summary of independent variables is presented in Table 1. Knowing the adaptation practices and the major determinant factors will help for designing policies that can tackle major problems associated with adaptation activities to climate change. Before administering the questionnaire, head of each household was informed about the aim of the study and asked for his/her consent to provide the necessary information for questions contained in the data collection tools. Adama master plan revision project: a brief of Adama city, The role of education in the adoption of chemical fertilizer under different socio-economic environments in Kenya, Smallholder farmers’ adaptation to climate change and determinants of their adaptation decisions in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, Review of the Current Science of Climate Change Tourism and the Implications of Climate Change: Issues and Actions Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, Ethiopian agricultural sample survey 2011/2012, Volume IV, Report on land utilization, Statistical Bulletin 532. And middle-highlands, which originates in Ethiopia, on January 17, 2019 ) attempted... Lives in it do equations for groundwater flow refer to water density annually in restoring landscapes in regions! In this study with the Studies of Tessema et al ) indicate that adaptation to change. 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