[78] A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. [78] The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn[75] and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain[75] and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes. [49] Relationships were good, the two states had several times declared their mutual friendship and there were strong commercial links. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. And all three times it was Rome who was the victor in these wars. The Punic Wars were a series of three wars between 264 and 146 BC fought by the states of Rome and Carthage.The First Punic War broke out in Sicily in 264 BC as a result of Rome's expansionary attitude combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to the island. The Second Punic War began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy in 218 BCE. This was the start of the Second Punic War. A cavalry force of 4,000 from the other Roman army was also engaged and wiped out. The remaining Carthaginian-controlled towns then surrendered or were taken through force or treachery[126][127] and the Sicilian grain supply to Rome and its armies was resumed. After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. http://becausegamesmatter.comSupport our Patreon to create more Extra History! The term ‘Punic’ comes from the Latin word ‘Punicus’ meaning Carthaginian. Their city had suffered too much in the war and in its aftermath during the ‘Mercenary War’ and there was a strong pro-peace party in the city. After the first Punic war where. [6][7] Polybius was an analytical historian and wherever possible personally interviewed participants, from both sides, in the events he wrote about. A fresh Roman army attacked the main Carthaginian stronghold on the island, Agrigentum, in 210 BC and the city was betrayed to the Romans by a discontented Carthaginian officer. Quintus Fabius Maximus was elected dictator by the Roman Assembly and adopted the "Fabian strategy" of avoiding pitched battles, relying instead on low-level harassment to wear the invader down, until Rome could rebuild its military strength. Soldiers returning home from the wars were unable to find employment because wealthy landlords were utilizing slaves to get work done instead of hiring Romans. Where did its power come from? [107] Carthage's new allies felt little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other. [159] Hannibal attempted to use 80 elephants to break into the Roman infantry formation, but the Romans countered them effectively and they routed back through the Carthaginian ranks. [172] The formerly Carthaginian territories became the Roman province of Africa. [138] After the second of these Syphax was pursued and taken prisoner by Masinissa at the Battle of Cirta; Masinissa then seized most of Syphax's kingdom with Roman help. This paper compares the rise and influence of Carthagínian to Roman power in the Mediterránean region between the ninth and second BCE centuries, and identifies some of the reasons that led to Rome becoming the dominating force over Cárthage. The Syracusan army proved no match for the Romans, and by spring 213 BC Syracuse was besieged. In 211 BC Hannibal attempted to lure the Romans into a pitched battle, but was unsuccessful; and was also unable to lift the siege by assaulting the besiegers' defences. "Shock" troops are those trained and used to close rapidly with an opponent, with the intention of breaking them before, or immediately upon, contact. [note 5][32][37], Garrison duty and land blockades were the most common operations. The Second Punic War was the most significant of the three conflicts fought between Rome and Carthage that are collectively known as the Punic Wars. The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's deliberately weak centre, but Libyan heavy infantry on the wings swung around their advance, menacing their flanks. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents was to be paid over 50 years. [50][51] According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design. I will attempt to answer all these questions. [160] Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians in infantry. Over the course of one-hundred years the Mediterranean antiquity was rocked by an ancient cold war between the North African seafaring state of Carthage, and the newly rising city of Rome located on the Italian Peninsula. Rome was controlling the main peninsula of Italy while Carthage was controlling the islands and trade of the Mediterranean. [2][11] The modern historian Andrew Curry sees Polybius as being "fairly reliable";[12] while Craige Champion describes him as "a remarkably well-informed, industrious, and insightful historian". In both wars, the Carthaginians had also been made to pay Rome massive reparations. [170] In the spring of 146 BC the Romans launched their final assault, systematically destroying the city and killing its inhabitants;[171] 50,000 survivors were sold into slavery. In 205 BC this war ended with a negotiated peace. During this period of time the republic was part of several civil wars. Hannibal was left largely free to ravage Apulia for the next year. Carthage was reduced to a mere client state of Rome and its navy was reduced to just ten ships and they were forbidden from raising an army without the permission of Rome. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. [17][14], Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. [140] Mago was also recalled; he died of wounds on the voyage and some of his ships were intercepted by the Romans,[140] but 12,000 of his troops reached Carthage. The two sides' infantry fought inconclusively until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked the Carthaginian rear. If either commander felt at a disadvantage, they might might march off without engaging. [14] However, the classicist Adrian Goldsworthy considers Livy's "reliability is often suspect";[15] the historian Phillip Sabin refers to Livy's "military ignorance";[16] and he is generally considered untrustworthy by modern historians. [90] Hannibal set an ambush[90] and in the Battle of Lake Trasimene completely defeated the Roman army, killing 15,000 Romans,[91] including Flaminius,[90] and taking 10,000 prisoner. Rome and Carthage were once on a friendly term until things went south well. [83] The Senate had ordered the consul Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily, where it had been preparing for the invasion of Africa, to join the Roman army already facing Hannibal. [106] The new allies increased the number of fixed points which Hannibal's army was expected to defend from Roman retribution, but provided relatively few fresh troops to assist him in doing so. These included the large city of Capua and the major port city of Tarentum (modern Taranto). The great Carthaginian general, Hannibal, invaded Italy during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) with the hope of raising widespread rebellions among Rome's subordinate allies in the south. The towns of southern Hispania were subdued by Carthage. Observing that the three Carthaginian armies were deployed apart from each other, the Romans split their forces. [65], In 219 BC a Carthaginian army under Hannibal besieged, captured and sacked Saguntum[66][67] and in spring 218 BC Rome declared war on Carthage. [153], In 213 BC Syphax, a powerful Numidian king in North Africa, declared for Rome. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighting; and Iberian and Gallic forces fought on both sides. This meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated Treaty of Lutatius. These, ancient history, both the Roman Empire and the Carthage Empire were rivals in many battles and wars. In 205 BC a last attempt was made by Mago to recapture New Carthage when the Roman occupiers were shaken by another mutiny and an Iberian uprising, but he was repulsed. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. They took control of the city of Saguntum, who appealed to the Romans for help. His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. (Chris Scarre, 24-25) The word Punic comes from the Latin derivation of the word Punicus which translates to "Carthaginian", referring to the Carthaginian’s Phoenician ancestors. [43] Many battles were decided when one side's infantry force was attacked in the flank or rear and they were partially or wholly enveloped. The Romans immediately declared war on him. Rome After the Punic Wars; Rome After the Punic Wars. The First Punic War had been a humiliating loss for the Carthaginian Empire against Rome. [147][151] It was followed by the Roman capture of Gades, after the city rebelled against Carthaginian rule. Now Rome had a problem, for the first time in its history, soldiers had been away to war for a long period of time. [85] The consuls-elect recruited further legions, both Roman and from Rome's Latin allies; reinforced Sardinia and Sicily against the possibility of Carthaginian raids or invasion; placed garrisons at Tarentum and other places for similar reasons; built a fleet of 60 quinqueremes; and established supply depots at Ariminum and Arretium in preparation for marching north later in the year. [133], In 210 the Carthaginians caught the Romans off guard during their siege of Herdonia and lifted the siege after a pitched battle in which the Romans lost 13,000 men from their army of 20,000. [68] There were three main military theatres in the war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success until moving into Italy; and Africa, where the war was decided. [103], Little has survived of Polybius's account of Hannibal's army in Italy after Cannae. [73] An army had previously been created by the Romans to campaign in Iberia, but the Roman Senate detached one Roman and one allied legion from it to send to north Italy. Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. 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