(E and J) Tricellular pollen stage. 3 words related to pollen: spore, pollinium, ragweed pollen. A complementation vector, pBIN-DET2-Ubi-bar, which included the entire DET2-coding region, 3.0 kbp of the 5′ promoter region, 1.4 kbp of the 3′ downstream region, and the bar gene, was introduced into heterozygous tde1 plants (TDE1/tde1) using floral dip methods. The phenotype of male sterility, however, was not linked to the T-DNA (data not shown, see below), thus it is considered that the mutation was introduced during the transformation process. No structural difference was found between the wild type and tde1. As nouns the difference between grain and exine is that grain is (uncountable) the harvested seeds of various grass food crops eg: wheat, corn, barley or grain can be a branch of a tree; a stalk or stem of a plant while exine is (botany|palynology) the outer layer of a pollen grain or spore; the exosporium. Exine & intine. Biol, Transgenic studies on the involvement of cytokinin and gibberellin in male development, GUS fusions: β-glucuronidase as a sensitive and versatile gene fusion marker in higher plants, A role for brassinosteroids in light-dependent development of Arabidopsis, CYP703 is an ancient cytochrome P450 in land plants catalyzing in-chain hydroxylation of lauric acid to provide building blocks for sporopollenin synthesis in pollen, Callose (β-1,3 glucan) is essential for Arabidopsis pollen wall patterning, but not tube growth, Phenols as integrated compounds of sporopollenin from, Ultrastructure of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis in, DEX1, a novel plant protein is required for exine pattern formation during development in, A comparative ultrastructural analysis of exine pattern development in wild-type, Biogenesis and function of the lipidic structures of pollen grains, Tetrad pollen formation in quarted mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana is associated with persistence of pectic polysaccharides of the pollen mother cell wall, Pollen exine: the sporopollenin enigma and the physics of pattern. (I and M) Late bicellular pollen stage. The amount of the accumulation in tde1 became lower than that at the previous stage. 2007). This centrifugation experiment suggested that a family of coated vesicles (CVs), which are present throughout the meiocyte cytoplasm, are likely to be associated with large assemblages of smooth ER and with plasma membrane, and that the CVs are responsible for reticulate patterning (Sheldon and Dickson 1983). Based on macroscopic screening of about 3,000 lines of Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col), mutagenized with T-DNA, we identified a sterile mutant (KE-1903) that had completely empty siliques. body, the absorption of the intine, andl develop-ment of fragility in the exine. 2004). Further, the globular sporopollenin aggregation was not observed on the microspores at the early uninucleate microspore stage. It has been shown that the plasma membrane in the dex1 and nef1 mutants is shallower than that in the wild type (Paxson-Sowders et al. Pollen is surrounded by an outer sculptured thick wall, the exine. Finally, microspores without exine are formed in these mutants. 4H). In order to confirm if the tde1 mutation affected the expression of genes involved in the pollen exine formation, mRNA accumulation of these genes was determined by qRT–PCR (Supplementary Fig. A detailed observation of pollen wall development was also carried out using TEM. 1997, Ariizumi et al. The genotypes of the resulting F2 plants were determined using InDel markers in the Cereron Arabidopsis polymorphism collection (http://www.arabidopsis.org/Cereron/index.html). Distinctive pollen wall patterns vary between species but are conserved within species. 3A, C) and in the middle uninucleate microspore stage were observed (Fig. This indicates that the tde1 pollen grains are viable, but may not reach the stigmatic surface due to short filament length. Aniline blue staining was performed according to Ariizumi et al. This experiment demonstrated that brassinolide application rescued the reproductive phenotypes as well as the vegetative phenotypes, including primexine and probacula formation and male sterility (Supplementary Fig. 2004). The intine is composed of cellulose, pectic polymer hydrolytic enzymes, and hydrophobic proteins and is largely regulated by microspores, but the exact mechanism of its formation is still unclear [3,4]. 4I. Based on the phenotype of male sterility, the TDE1 gene was mapped between an InDel marker CER449022 on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone F12M22 and an InDel marker CER449589 on an adjacent BAC clone F16M14. This sporopollenin deposition within the primexine produces a columnae-like structure of exine, the probacula. So thickened portions of intine occur under pores. Surprisingly, microspores with a reticulate exine structure were also observed in tde1 at the same stage (Fig. However, these defective microspores eventually degrade in the locule. 1988). Thus the TDE1 gene was cloned using a map-based and candidate gene approach. It is predicted that the NEF1 encodes a membrane protein that maintains the envelope integrity in the plastids (Ariizumi et al. Her research interests include Bio-fertilizers, Plant-Microbe Interactions, Molecular Microbiology, Soil Fungi, and Fungal Ecology. Supplementary material mentioned in the article is available to online subscribers at the journal website www.pcp.oxfordjournals.org.